Paul Rebeyrolle was born in Eymoutiers in the Limousin region of France. He moved to Paris in 1944 and studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. Rebeyrolle was awarded the Prix de la Jeune Peinture in 1950 and the Prix Feneon 1951. He was regarded as a leader in the realist tendency in post-war French painting and his work, which was always figurative, is marked by anger and political engagement. His first of many one-man exhibitions was at the Galerie Drouant-David, Paris in 1951. A retrospective of his work was held at the Grand Palais, Paris in 1979, and in 2000 at the Maeght Foundation, Saint-Paul-de-Vence.
Rebeyrolle died in 2005 in Boudreville in Côte-d'Or.